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Definition, Process, Signs, and Indicators

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What Is an Economic Recovery?

Economic recovery is the business cycle stage following a recession that is characterized by a sustained period of improving business activity. Normally, during an economic recovery, gross domestic product (GDP) grows, incomes rise, and unemployment falls as the economy rebounds.

During an economic recovery, the economy undergoes a process of adaptation and adjustment to new conditions, including the factors that triggered the recession in the first place and the new policies and rules implemented by governments and central banks in response to the recession.

The labor, capital goods, and other productive resources that were tied up in businesses that failed and went under during the recession are re-employed in new activities as unemployed workers find new jobs and failed firms are bought up or divided up by others. Recovery is an economy healing itself from the damage done, and it sets the stage for a new expansion

Key Takeaways

  • Economic recovery is the process of reallocating resources and workers from failed businesses and investments to new jobs and uses after a recession.
  • An economic recovery follows after the recession and leads into a new expansionary business cycle phase.
  • Leading indicators—such as the stock market, retail sales, and business startups—often rise ahead of an economic recovery.
  • Government policies can sometimes help or interfere with the economic recovery process. 
  • During an economic recovery, central banks may enact monetary policies aimed at increasing the money supply and encouraging lending.

Understanding an Economic Recovery

Market economies experience ups and downs for several reasons. Economies can be impacted by all kinds of factors, including revolutions, financial crises, and global influences. Sometimes these shifts in markets can take on a pattern that can be thought of as a kind of wave or cycle, with distinct stages of an expansion or boom, a peak leading to some economic crisis, a recession, and subsequent recovery.

An economic recovery occurs after a recession as the economy adjusts and recovers some of the gains lost during the recession. The economy then eventually transitions to a true expansion when growth accelerates and GDP starts moving toward a new peak.

Not every period of slow growth or even contraction is severe enough to be designated as a recession. In the United States, the most common rule of thumb for a recession is if there are two consecutive quarters of negative GDP growth.

Economic Recovery and the Economic Cycle

The economic cycle, also known as the business cycle, refers to the recurring pattern of economic growth, contraction, and recovery. This cyclical pattern is typically moves through four main phases that we’ll talk about in a moment. Note that “economic recovery” isn’t one of the four phases; however, the recovery occurs between the trough and the expansion periods discussed below. Here are the four phases:

  1. Expansion: This phase marks a period of economic growth and increasing activity. During an expansion, businesses invest, employment rises, and consumer spending increases. The economy is generally robust, and confidence among businesses and consumers is high. Note that one of the main reasons this happens is because the economy is recovering, potentially boosted by government intervention. This is the period where economic recovery happens.
  2. Peak: The peak is the highest point of the economic cycle. This means the economy is done expanding. In many ways, this means that the economy has recovered (so “economic recovery” has been completed). At this stage, the economy is operating near its full capacity. As the economy reaches its peak, growth slows down, and signs of potential overheating become apparent.
  3. Contraction (Recession): The contraction phase is characterized by a decline in economic activity. GDP contracts, businesses reduce investments, unemployment rises, and consumer spending decreases. This is the part where the economy begins to move into a period where economy recovery is needed.
  4. Trough: The trough represents the bottom of the economic cycle, where economic activity reaches its lowest point. During this phase, the negative trends observed in the contraction phase begin to stabilize or reverse. Businesses may start to invest again, and consumer confidence begins to recover. This prior sentence is the epitome of economic recovery which (hopefully) leads to a period of prosperity and a new period of expansion.

The Balance / Sabrina Jiang

The Process of Recovery

During a recession, many businesses fail and go out of business, and many of those that survive cut back activities to reduce costs in the face of decreased demand for their output. Workers often get laid off and business assets get sold piecemeal. Sometimes business owners are forced to liquidate an entire business.

Some of these capital assets end up in the hands of other businesses, sometimes even brand new businesses, that can put them to productive use. Sometimes these are very similar to their previous uses, and sometimes these are totally new lines of business. This process of sorting capital goods into new combinations, under new ownership, at new prices after they have been released from failed businesses or business cutbacks in the recession, is the essence of economic recovery.

As entrepreneurs re-organize productive labor and capital into new businesses and activities, they must account for changes in the economy that have occurred. In some business cycles, real economic shocks have helped trigger the recession, such as the oil price spikes of the 1970s and 2008.

Businesses usually need to deal with a leaner credit environment relative to the easy credit days of the boom that preceded the recession. They may need to implement new technologies and organizational forms. Almost always, the government fiscal and regulatory environment that businesses operate under changes from the boom to the recession and recovery.

In the end, the recovery can change the patterns of economic activity in an economy, sometimes drastically and sometimes in barely noticeable ways. The economy heals the damage during the preceding parts of the business cycle by reallocating, reusing, and recycling resources into new uses, in an analogous way to how the body breaks down dead and damaged tissue in order to produce new, healthy cells and tissues after an injury.

Importantly, in order for the process of recovery to proceed, it is critical that the business and investment liquidations of the recession are carried out and the resources tied up in them are allowed to flow to new uses and new businesses. 

Eventually, this process of recovery leads to a new phase of growth and expansion once resources have been mostly or fully reallocated across the economy.

Economists will often create charts that measure different components of an economic recovery, such as GDP and employment rates. These recovery charts are named after the shape they form, such as a V-shaped, W-shaped, or K-shaped recovery.

Indicators of Recovery

Economists often play a big part in defining an economy’s business cycle phase as well as the stages of economic growth or contraction it may be experiencing. To assess the economy, economists look at both leading and lagging economic indicators in their analysis.

Leading indicators can be things such as the stock market, which often rises ahead of an economic recovery. This is usually because future expectations drive stock prices. On the other hand, employment is typically somewhat of a lagging indicator. Unemployment often remains high even as the economy begins to recover because many employers will not hire additional personnel until they are reasonably confident there is a long-term need for new hiring.

GDP is usually the key indicator of an economic phase. Two quarters of consecutive negative GDP growth indicates a recession. Other economic indicators for consideration can include consumer confidence and inflation.

Risks and Challenges of Economic Recovery

There’s a handful of risks and potential downsides during the economic recovery phase. First, inflationary pressures pose a significant risk during economic recovery. As demand for goods and services increases, there is a potential for prices to rise, impacting purchasing power and potentially eroding the real value of incomes. Central banks face the challenge of managing this delicate balance, using tools like interest rates to control inflation without stifling economic growth. It’s an oversimplification, but inflation and unemployment often move in opposition; to decrease unemployment, the Federal Reserve usually to face higher inflation.

External factors such as global geopolitical tensions, trade disputes, or public health crises can also pose unique challenges. The interconnectedness in the global economy means that events in one region can have far-reaching consequences. For example, the White House signed an Executive Order in 2023 to implement trade sanctions against Russia in response to the Ukraine conflict. One could argue the United States was still emerging from the COVID-19 pandemic; still, the government decided certain repercussions (i.e. constraints on oil and the energy sector) would likely occur that wouldn’t help economic recovery.

Accommodative monetary policies, such as low-interest rates, implemented during economic recovery, may also contribute to the creation of asset bubbles. Though economic recovery is marked by growth, the government must be mindful of how favorable policies may create inflated valuations or excessive exuberance.

Last, as markets move into a recovery stage, entities may find it necessary to seek debt to cover lost wages (for individuals) or growth/operations (for businesses). There’s considerable risk that, although an economy is recovering, there will be a response lag that entities need to weather.

Special Considerations

Fiscal and monetary policy actions taken by regulators are often guided by an economy’s business cycle. With the onset of a recession, these policies are generally aimed at helping businesses, investors, and workers who have been impacted. Governments may implement direct assistance and they may stimulate demand by easing interest rates to encourage lending. They may provide funding aimed at propping up threatened financial institutions.   

Unfortunately, these policies can also have the effect of delaying the recovery by preventing the liquidation of failing businesses. These policies may encourage businesses and workers to not adjust the prices and arrangements of business ventures and employment conditions to the new realities revealed by the recession.

Similarly, propping up business arrangements, investments, and institutions that do not reflect economic reality delays the process of reallocation of resources to new uses, new owners, and new jobs for unemployed workers. It can also do permanent damage to society by encouraging people and businesses to continue to destroy capital and waste real resources by engaging in economic activities that are not profitable or efficient under the new economic conditions.

28 Years

The longest recovery and expansion period on record is held by the economy of Australia.

Examples of Economic Recovery

A recovery and expansion period can last for years. The economic recovery from the 2008 financial crisis and recession began in June 2009. Real GDP had contracted by 5.5% in the first quarter of 2009 and another 0.7% in the second quarter. The economy showed signs of recovery by the third and fourth quarters of 2009. The Dow Jones Industrial Average, a popular proxy for economic performance and a leading indicator, had already been rising for four months after bottoming out in February 2009.

The United States economy demonstrated a robust recovery post-COVID-19, returning to its pre-pandemic growth trajectory with a 2.1% real GDP growth in 2022. Since Q1 2022, the country’s real GDP has increased every quarter. In addition, since peaking at 14.8% unemployment in April 2020, the United States had been 4.0% or less unemployment from January 2022 to January 2024.

In July 2020, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) reported a record timeframe for recovery and expansion over the next 10 years. In the wake of the massive disruption to supply chains, closures of businesses, and lay-offs of workers due to the public health mandates and social distancing orders, the CBO projects the economy will rebound at a modest pace with a projected real GDP growth of 2.2% for the U.S. in 2024.

How Do Fiscal and Monetary Policies Contribute to Economic Recovery?

Fiscal policies, such as government spending and taxation adjustments, and monetary policies, involving interest rate changes and liquidity management, contribute to economic recovery by influencing aggregate demand, investment levels, and financial market stability. The government uses these policies to stimulate economic activity during downturns; in certain economies, it might be argued that economic recovery can’t happen without the government’s policies.

How Does Inflation Impact the Sustainability of Economic Recovery?

Inflation impacts the sustainability of economic recovery by influencing purchasing power and consumer confidence. Moderate inflation can be a sign of a healthy economy, but excessive inflation may erode the value of money, leading to decreased consumer spending. When excessive inflation occurs, the government may also decide to pull back some favorable policies, meaning the economy is somewhat likely to slow (and thus risks recovery).

What Role Does Labor Play in Economic Recovery?

Labor market dynamics play a crucial role in economic recovery. Factors like employment levels and skill mismatches influences recovery sustainability, as getting people back to work can help increase consumer spending (and thus business growth opportunities).

What Impact Does Technology and Automation Have on Economic Recovery?

Technology and automation impact economic recovery by influencing employment patterns and income distribution. While driving efficiency, the transition to automation may create job displacement challenges, therefore reducing consumer spending opportunities. However, companies may find they can be more efficient and incur fewer costs when implementing innovation solutions like this. Therefore, individuals must adapt and upskill to continue to not be entirely displaced by emerging technology.

The Bottom Line

Economic recovery involves the revitalization of a national or global economy following a period of downturn or recession. It’s usually characterized by positive growth indicators such as increased GDP, declining unemployment rates, and restored consumer and investor confidence. Economic recovery can happen when policymakers employ a handful of policies, though there’s risks and challenges in balancing economic growth and external risks like geopolitical relations and inflation.

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